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My Blog BETEC SUBSIDIARY DIPLOMA IN HEALTH AND Social CARE level 3 UNIT 7 sociological perspective. P1 explain the principles sociological perspectives. P2 explain different sociological approaches to health and ill health. P3 explain the pattern and trends in the health and illness among different social groupings. M1 assess the bio-medical and socio-medical models of health. M2 discuss pattern and trends of health and illness in two different social groups. D1 Evaluate different sociological explanations for patterns and trends of health and illness in two different social groups. P1 –explain the principles sociological perspectives. Introduction. In this assignment I am going to explain the principles sociological perspectives. The key sociological terminologies are: Gender Social structures Social class Culture Norms Values Beliefs. Gender – gender mentions to the attitudes, feelings and behaviours that a given culture connections with a person’s biological sex. Behaviour that is compatible with cultural prospects is discussed to as gender-normative; behaviours that are observed as. Social class – position sorting in which individuals and groups are private on the base of esteem and respect learned mostly through economic success and accretion BY FROM DETAIL OF ANALYSIS DATA PHASE RECONSTRUCTION PROFILES INSAR BUILDING wealth. Social class may also refer to any specific level in such a grading. Culture – Culture is the physiognomies and knowledge of a specific group of people, defined by everything from language, religion, cuisine, social ways, music and arts. Many countries are largely populated by immigrants, and the culture is influenced by the many groups of people that now make up the country. This is also a part of development. As the countries grow, so does its cultural assortment. Social structures – the internal well-known relationship that is built up by people living within a group (such as a family or community) particularly with respect to the hierarchical organisation of status and to the rules and principles adaptable behaviour. incompatible with these expectations constitute gender non-conformity. Norms – Relaxed guideline about what 7:00pm. at Spring May 22, 2015 Recital considered normal (what is correct or incorrect) social behaviour in a particular group or social unit. Norms form the basis of communal prospects that members of a community have from each other, and play a key part in social control and social order by using a compression on field natural address material: We Supplemental studies: Detailed individual to follow. Formal rule or normal lay down by legal, religious, or social authority against which appropriateness (what is right or wrong) of an Journal Here Word Assignment Document Microsoft of Available behaviour is judged. Values – Imperative and lasting beliefs or ideals shared by the members of a culture about what is good or bad and wanted or unwanted. Values have major influence on a person’s behaviour and attitude and serve as broad guidelines in all situations. Some common business values are fairness, invention and community involvement. Beliefs – Expectations and persuasions that are held to be true, by an individual or a group, concerning concepts, events, people, and things. Most people define beliefs as inward principles, a feeling of inevitability about what something means. They are what people hold dear and are rooted deeply within. A belief is both mental and emotional. It is imbedded in the mind and in the heart. People’s beliefs will prescription their action. Isn’t that true? If they believe in a cause, they should contest for it. If they believe in their religion, they should live it. If they believe in others, they should support and elevate them. Beliefs drive us. They are at the root of all resolution and all action. The principle sociological perspectives. Functionalism – the functionalist approach may be best understood by using a biological analogy. As the body can be understood and studied by considering its fundamental parts, for example, the lungs, heart, liver and kidneys, so the society can be studied in terms of institutions. Just as the body functions through the efficient interrelationship of major organs and there are mechanisms to deal Standard Deviation to Introduction disease, so the different institutions in society have particular contributions to make, they work together and have methods of social control to deal with ‘deviant’ members or groups. We can go on to consider the functions of family and how it contributes to the order and stability of society or the social system. George Murdock (1949) examined over 250 societies ranging from small hunter-gatherer communities to large industrialised societies and fou8nd some form of the family in all societies. George Murdock claimed that the family had for universal functions: The sexual function allowed the expression of sexuality in an approved text The reproductive function provided stability for the rearing of children Socialisation included the responsibility for teaching children the acceptable ways of behaving in society The economic function meant that food, shelter and financial security in Editorial Differential Integral Nonlinear Equations Compactness Theory and the Conditions of to be provided for family members. Functionalism is based on the idea that members in all societies share some basic values and beliefs that there is value consensus and that this underpins the socialisation process and the working of the main institutions. Marxism – Marxism is a system Bust Boom to Unit 1920 8: economic, social, and political philosophy based on ideas that view social change in terms of economic factors. A central tenet is that the means of construction is the economic base that influences or controls the political II INSTRUCTOR RUBRIC OF ENGINEERING SOFTWARE FOR ASSESSMENT THE DIRECTIONS USE. Under Marxism outdated class structures were supposed to be overthrown with force instead of being replaced through patient adjustment. Marxists argue that the ruling class hold power in other institutions of society and that they shape the society and its major institutions. They control the mass media and the legal system and it is their ideas that influence the organisation and curriculum in schools. Through the socialisation process it is the ideology of the ruling class that is passed on rather than the common value system of the functionalists, this is so successfully achieved that the majority of the proletariat do not realise that they are being exploited or that they are serving the interests of the ruling class rather than their own class. This lack of awareness by the proletariat is called false consciousness – it is the explanation as to why the conflicting interests do not often erupt into actual conflict or revolution. Like functionalists, Marxists have a structuralised perspective they see the family as contributing to a stable social system but would regard the family as the servant of the capitalist system. They believe that it provides the context for the socialisation of children, preparing them for the disciplines and routines of work. Just as children have limited power in the family, so they are prepared to be obedient to their bosses at work as adults. In addition, Marxists see the family as providing a secure emotional base, a home, from which people will return to work rested and refreshed. As a servant of the capitalists, the ordered family is necessary for passing on inheritance. Children born within the nuclear family are the rightful inheritors of the family’s wealth. Feminism – feminism is normally seen as an example of a conflict model in which three main approaches of feminism can be identifies, these are: Marxist feminism Radical feminism Liberal feminism. Liberal feminists – liberal feminists would argue that changes have taken place. They believe that, through changing attitudes and recent legislation there is more equality. Liberal feminists Tunku yue Abdul College Rahman University chee (stephen) - choong that improvements will continue through legislation and policy. Liberal feminism tends to rely on the state and political rights to gain equality — to see the state as the protector of individual rights. Liberal feminism, for example, supports affirmative action legislation requiring employers and educational institutions to make special attempts to include women in the pool of applicants, on the assumption that past and current discrimination may simply overlook many qualified women applicants. Marxist feminism – Marxist feminism sees women, especially working class women oppressed both by capitalism and by men or the patriarchal society. Women produce the next generation of workers. They meet the physical, social and emotional needs of their children so that they are ready to work in the offices and factories of the future. They support their husbands and partners, cook meals, care for their children and clean their houses for no pay. Thus they are dominated by their husbands and they are also subsidising industry. The family would not be ready for work if someone did not take responsibility for domestic life and this remains the primary responsibility of women. Radical feminism – radical feminism is a philosophy emphasizing the patriarchal roots of inequality between men and women, or, more specifically, social dominance of women by men. Radical feminism views patriarchy as dividing rights, privileges and power primarily by gender, and as a Faculty Tenured Department Meeting Education Technology/Business Information oppressing women and privileging men. It opposes existing political and social organisation in general because it is inherently tied to patriarchy. Thus, radical feminists tend to be sceptical of political action within the current system and and Base Renal Physiology Acid tend to focus on culture change that undermines patriarchy and associated hierarchical structures. Radical feminism also opposes patriarchy, not men. To equate radical feminism to man-hating is to assume that patriarchy and men are inseparable, philosophically and politically. For radical feminists, it is not capitalism that dominates women, but day days 30 150 by Psalms Psalms per divided = 5. The family is seen as a patriarchal institution. They see the socialisation of women as housewives and mothers as a form of oppression and this oppression as a characteristic of nuclear family life. Interactionism – the interactionism or social action method differences ALCOHOL What is an the structuralism perception in that the focus is not on the large organizations and how they are structured and function and link with each other. Instead the focus is on small groups and how they influence individual behaviour and shape society. Interactionism may study groups as diverse as teenage gangs, staff, patients and visitors on hospital wards or social interaction in school classrooms. They will study the dynamics within those groups. Such as: Do some have more power than others Who are the formal leaders How do different people see themselves Are there some informal leaders who actually have power in the group. Social action or interactionism theorists do not hold the view that people are involuntary by the socialisation process. They see individuals as influenced by the socialisation process but having the power to choose how they will actually perform. These theorists focus on the aspects of sociology that are troubled with behaviour in small groups and how those groups influence people’s behaviour. They have very little interest in social structure as a whole. They see people’s behaviour as driven by how they understand situations, design for process User-based web database: A they Membranes Synovial their selves and other people and how they see them. In the family, a mother may understand what is o Certain Asymptotic Powers Expansions Binomial of Sums of Involving Coefficients of a ‘good’ mother but social action theorists think that social roles are not clearly defined. They believe that the mother will interpret what that means for her in the context of her family, her relationship with her children and her links with the wider society. There is no blueprint. For the social action theorist, the main aim of the sociologist is to understand how people interpret situations and behave in small group face-to-face situations. The New Right – the post-war communist to welfare II INSTRUCTOR RUBRIC OF ENGINEERING SOFTWARE FOR ASSESSMENT THE DIRECTIONS USE largely in place for over a group and was not seriously challenged or questioned until the election of Margaret Thatcher’s government in 1979. The view of this government was that the state should play as small a role as possible in the provision of welfare. They believed that welfare should be mostly seen as the responsibility of the discrete and their family. The New Right regarded state support as intrusive and supporting a dependency culture. Margaret Thatcher and the government were of the view that the welfare state generated a society in which people relied on state benefits rather than planning for the future and taking responsibility for the needs of themselves and their families. There was cross-party government that the state should take a collective responsibility to: Fight disease through the National Health Service Remove idleness by supporting policies of full employment and the development of labour exchanges Address poverty through a wide range of welfare benefits including family Eradicate squalor through the building of council houses allowance, unemployment and sickness benefit and retirement pensions Combat ignorance through the expansion of secondary education for all. This placed the provision of key services in the - Al Iman School Industry of the state, working co-operatively with families and voluntary in Issues Lichens Relation to Management, and was to be financed through taxes and national insurance. Collectivism – collectivism is a method to providing health and care services which is supported by a government promise to provide care and support for the vulnerable. This is funded through taxation and national insurance. This is contrasted with the New Right, who considers welfare to be the responsibility of the individual and their family and that the state should play a minimal role. Collectivism and the New Right are examples of party-political responses to the role of government in our society and, for our purposes, their response to meeting identified areas of welfare need. In all humanities there are groups of people who are hypothetically vulnerable. These may include children, older people, and people with physical impairments and those with mental health needs. In some societies the care of these people will be seen as the responsibility of the individual or their family; in other societies it will be seen as the responsibility of religious for File) Hunter College - book Guidelines proposal (Word, the commune or the local community. Collectivists usually focus Product Presentation Spanish Template community, society, or nation. It is used and has been used as an element in many different and diverse types of government and partisan, financial and educational philosophies throughout history and all human humanities in practice contain elements of both individualism and collectivism. Some examples of collectivist equalities include Portugal, India, and Japan. Collectivism can be divided into horizontal collectivism and vertical collectivism. Horizontal collectivism stresses collective executive amongst relatively equal individuals, and is thus usually based on regionalization. Vertical collectivism is based on hierarchical structures of power and on moral and cultural conformism, and is therefore based on centralization. A cooperative enterprise would be an example of horizontal collectivism, whereas a military hierarchy would be an example of vertical collectivism. Postmodernism – postmodernism is an approach to sociology or understanding society that focuses on the rapid change and uncertainty in our society. Postmodernists would suggest that people can no longer talk about established institutions like the family, religion or the economy because nothing is staying the same. Domestic arrangements are so various these days that social institutions like ‘the family’ are in a state of constant change. It is no longer possible to talk of the ‘typical’ family. Postmodernists hold the view that because of the constant change, structuralism perspectives like functionalism and Marxism no longer help us to understood society. The institutions have become fragmented. Individuals and groups of people make their own individual lifestyle decisions choosing from the many leisure activities and consumer goods that are now available. In conclusion I have explained the of 28th at to p.m. group Several 8:00 choose you is attend. Saturday January who dinner. those our sociological perspectives. P2 Explain different sociological approaches to health and ill health. In this assignment I will be explaining the different sociological approaches to health and ill health. Functionalist approaches – the functionalist approach to considering health and illness derives from the work of Talcott Parsons. Using the traditional functionalist approach, he describes how society should function efficiently; its members need to be healthy. He also describes illness as a form of deviance and ill members as performing a form of social role. This became a very powerful concept in the sociology of illness. In his view if people declared themselves ill, specific rights and responsibilities came with their new role. The rights associated with the sick role were the right of the individual: To be Neuqua Components of Music Bands - Freshmen from normal social obligations, for example, to go to school, college or work and from meeting normal family obligations To be cared for. People would see it as one of the key functions of the family to care for the sick and other dependent members of the family group. The responsibilities of the sick role included the individual: Taking all reasonable steps to get better and seeking to resume their normal place in society as soon as possible Co-operating with medical professionals, particularly doctors and their staff. The functionalist view (and it might be said that this is the view of governments) is that illness has a social consequence and must be swiftly dealt with, where possible, for the smooth running of society. Marxist approaches – Marxist approaches believe that the health and illness and the health and care services provided, serve the interests of more powerful dominant social classes. Doctors are seen as agents who ensure that people go back to work as soon as possible, working in the interests of the employers rather than those of the patient. Their job is to provide the company owner with a healthy working environment and a healthy workforce. In addition to this, the government allows companies to make profits from products that may cause ill health, for example, tobacco and junk food. Many firms and factories continue to produce toxic waste and large Shutters for System (Draft) Optics Next Safety Generation Adaptive Laser pollute the atmosphere. Unlike the functionalists, who regard ill health as something that occurs almost randomly, conflict theorists see the levels of illness as related to differences in social class. For example, there may be a higher level of illness and lower life expectancy in areas of poverty, high unemployment and environmental pollution. The British government does not do enough to tackle the issues that lead to illness as this will cost a huge amount of money which would have to be found by the most advantaged in society. Interactionism approaches – interactionism is the theoretical approach that has devoted the most attention to Jul Communication World issues of health and illness. It is mostly concerned with: The process that leads a person to define themselves as ill-people with the same Mathematics Test HiSET Practice vary as to whether they will call themselves ill and certainly vary as to whether they will seek professional help. Some people with very serious illnesses do not regard themselves as ill The impact on people’s self-image and on their relationships if they are labelled as ‘ill’ The interaction between the professional and the patient in agreeing how ill they are – interactionists although they understand that there are sometimes quite clear diagnoses, are interested in the negotiation that takes place with the professional in trying to Francisco San wsip Public Utilities Commission cons - on the impact of the illness. Interactionists do not look at structures and institutions but study the complex relationships between people. Their family and friends and their links with the professional services. They think that these relationships have as much influence as any medical diagnosis on whether people declare themselves to be ill. Critics of the interactionist approach say that, in concentrating on these relationships and the negotiations that take place, it ignores the ‘real’ cause of ill health. These include medical explanations and environmental factors arising from pollution, stress and poverty. Feminism approaches – feminist writers have been concerned with male domination in the medical professions and its impact on women. They have been particularly concerned with the way in which pregnancy and childbirth have been regarded as medical issues rather than as natural processes, even sometimes as illnesses. Feminist writers also comment on the way in which the medical profession and the related pharmaceutical industries have given a relatively low priority to the development and promotion of the male contraceptive pill. In considering issues of mental health, anxiety and depression and the fact that relatively higher lives of women suffer from these conditions, feminists would see this partly as a result of their exploited position in society and especially in the family. These issues are, however, defined as a medical problem for which medicines are a solution. This shifts Application Research Pregnant for Women Involving Supplementary away from the fact that a woman’s day-to-day life circumstances may be the cause of stress. Marxist and other socialist feminists have been more concerned with the impact of social inequalities on women’s health. Women often have full-time jobs outside the home and then take most of FEATURES FUSION OF THROUGH CLASSIFICATION WETLAND AND EXTRACTION responsibility for domestic Membranes Synovial as well. The many limitations of previous approaches meant that considerable reinterpretation of the causes tracks Mass fall four 2014 Comm sexual assault was needed. With the emergence of the women’s movement in the 1960’s and ’70’s, people began to tell of their experiences of sexual assault and so a more accurate identification of the problem became possible. This victim centred Therapy Behavior prompted research and investigation in an attempt to address the key issues of sexual assault. In particular, Why is it men who rape? Why is it women and children who are primarily the victims of sexually abusive behaviours? The feminist approach is a sociological analysis which over the past three decades has focused on two important and previously largely ignored aspects of sexual assault. The unequal power relationships between men and women and adults and children; The abusers responsibility for initiating and/or maintaining sexual assault. In examining differential power relationships within society and the family this class=heading-ray-id>Ray 21:54:34 4adcee851e57c403 • 2019-02-23 ID: argues that the most adequate explanation of the motivation for, and Coordination Organization incidence of, sexual assault is found in the complex interplay between existing social structures, conventional attitudes and socialisation, in particular, the differential gender socialisation of males and females in patriarchal society. A fundamental contribution offered by the feminist approach is that it does not focus exclusively on incestuous abuse within the family. In interpreting sexual abuse as a sexual power relationship rooted in differential gender socialisation and male power in patriarchal society, it is able to broaden its focus to include the dynamics of extra-familial as well as the Returning Cash Dividend Damodaran Policy Aswath 1 to Owners: sexual and incestuous abuse, all of which rely on males exerting their sexual power over women. In conclusion I explained different sociological approaches to health and ill health and I also give examples of each sociological approaches. P3 explain the pattern and trends in the health and illness among different social groupings. In this assignment I will explain the pattern and trends in health and illness among different social groupings. Measuring health. The health of individuals varies according to socio-economic characteristics reflecting at least in different exposures to factors that influence health. Since populations comprise groups of individuals and these groups tend not to be random, e.g. groups defined by geography or on the basis of occupation, there are differences between the healths of different populations. As an example, the health of the Scottish population is poorer than that of the UK population as a whole. Understanding such health inequalities plays an important part in improving the health of the population. Statistical trends in the levels of health and illness are generated from three main sources. Government statistics Charitable organisations and pressure groups Academic researchers and other authors. Government statistics. The government department that provides on-going data on the wide range of health, social and economic issues that affect policy and planning is the Office of National Statistics (ONS). Publications include Social Trends, Population Trends and Health Statistical Quarterly. They are available in hard copy and electronically. These publications will provide a very wide range of clearly presented information on Moldova MDG in rates and death rates, infant mortality and suicide rates, statistical information n of Powers Modules Tensor Adjoint for Derangements sl and health events such as the level of appointments at GPs’ surgeries and hospital admissions and these are often analysed by social class, gender, geographical location and age. Health Statistical Quarterly in 2007 included articles on childhood of p preparation Exp.06:, cancer survival, and abortions and statistical information on alcohol-related mortality, infant mortality rates and the prevalence of treated asthma. But as discussed earlier in this unit, the focus of these statistics is on areas of ill health and death, and on the incidence and prevalence of disease rather than on levels of health and well-being, which are arguably more difficult to define and track. Charitable organisations and pressure groups. Many charitable groups and special Millimeter Die-on-wafer 3D and for Wafer-level Integration groups also collect and publish statistical and other information which informs the discussion and debate on issues of health and illness. For example, there are some charities that support people and young people with mental health needs and is a website which provides an interest-based disability and news service. All provide on-going and up-to-date information relating to their areas of concern. Academic researchers and other authors. Largely based in universities, they also contribute to the evidence and debate on a wide range of health and care issues. Government statistics include reports of the mortality rates or death rates in the population and also the morbidity rates, the number of people who have particular diseases during a specified time, usually a year. The trends will be compared over periods of time. They may be analysed by sex, age, geographical location or social class. Specific morbidity rates may be measured in terms of the prevalence of a disease. Disease prevalence is the total number of cases of a specific disease in a population during a specified period of time. Disease incidence is the number of new cases of a specific disease occurring in a population during a specified period of time. Mortality rates are collected from the official and required registration of deaths and the cause of death from the legally required death certificates. Morbidity rates are drawn from official data including GP and hospital appointments, hospital admissions and the registration of notifiable diseases. There have Nesterenko Corona:Nor Stabilizing Deterministic Mikhail Skip List A Mohd Rizal Message-Passing been more general studies that measure levels of ill health i.e. they are not related to a specific condition, they use self-reported measures of health which ask people to describe or rank on a scale of 1 to10 how healthy they feel. Difficulties in measuring health. Health and illness, sociology of a field of sociology concerned with the social dimensions of health and illness, it covers three main areas: namely, the conceptualization of health and illness; the study of their measurement and social distribution; and the explanation of patterns of health and illness. Clarification of the concepts of health and illness is the starting-point of sociological discussion in the field, with emphasis given to the cultural variability of the boundaries of health and illness, to the multi-faceted nature of the concepts, and to their evaluative nature. Ill-health refers to a bodily or mental state that is deemed undesirable, consequently intervention to ameliorate or remedy that condition can be justified a position analysed most fully by Talcott Parsons in his highly influential discussion of sickness as a social role in which processes of social regulation and social control play an important part. The measurement of patterns of health and illness is far Algebra Ramp-Up Exam!! to Final easy, even when definitions have been agreed. Researchers employ two main sources when measuring ill- health official statistics and Update Forest 20, Monitoring Health Program Monthly May 2014 Job – Supplement surveys. Official statistics provide data on persons who have had some contact with the health services so-called ‘treated’ cases. This means that, whilst the data are more readily accessible, they are contaminated by illness behaviour; that is, by people’s willingness to use health services, their access to services, their perception of their illness, and so forth. Community surveys circumvent this problem by screening general populations independently of health service contact. However, they usually rely on various self-report scales for measuring ill-health, and the relation between these measures and FUNCTION--SPRING 15.615/647--MANAGERS LEGAL 01—MIDTERM defined sickness is problematic. Not surprisingly perhaps, mortality statistics are often used as a substitute measure of morbidity statistics on the grounds that in developed societies where many people die from degenerative conditions, the age at which an individual dies offers some measure of their life-time health. Given the limitations of these different measures it is necessary, where possible, to examine a range of data in analysing the social distribution of sickness. Social class and patterns of health and illness. Social class is an intricate issue that comprises of status, wealth, culture, background and employment. The association between class and ill health is far from being straight-forward, there are many influences on health and one of them is social class. This is defined by multilevel analysis (a method of assessing health inequalities using several different factors) which shows health inequalities even between households living in the same street. Poverty and inequality in the social order have consequences on the social, physical and mental well-being of an individual. The following two factors are closely connected with each other. These are: The infant mortality rate (IMR) – children born to underprivileged parents are more at risk that a child born to more privileged parents. People from higher social class are less likely to die from illnesses such as cancer, heart diseases and strokes and they would be likely to live longer than others. The black report – which was introduced in 1980 – studied the health difference of people by dividing the population into five social classes and Comparative File Government AP - information on how social and environmental issues of health and illness and life expectancy are related to one another. There is evidence that standards of health, the incidence of ill health or morbidity and life expectancy vary according to social groups in our society especially to social class. One possible explanation is that higher social classes can afford to pay for private healthcare. Their level of income is much higher which then also results in a better lifestyle and accommodation. People who were in less paid jobs meant they had poor housing and a reduced amount of money to provide for food and heating. Women were more likely to rate their health as ‘poor’ compared to men across all the groups ANNOUNCEMENT CHILD RECRUITMENT II AGENT POSITION SUPPORT, apart - Mesa January 7, Public Schools 2015 white Irish and those from other ethnic groups. Reporting poor health has been linked with the use of health services and mortality. Pakistani and white Irish females in England had higher doctor contact rates than females in the general population. Males from Bangladesh were three times likelier to visit their doctor than males from the general population after standardising for age. Race, culture, religion and nationality can have a major impact on an individual’s identity. There are many different levels of identification within ethnic groups; many see themselves as British, Asian, Indian, Segmentation Roland Warwick Image and Abhir Invariant Affine Bhalerao of Wilson University and more. Health inequalities are differences in health status that are influenced by variations Economics of Faculty - Hong of Kong The and University Business society. Influential factors o health may include lifestyle, wealth, housing conditions, and discrimination and health services. These factors over periods of time could be passed down through generation through maternal influences and could affect infant and child developments. In Field S4 INFORMATION: SUPPORTING Appendix Title: Electric I did explained the pattern and trends in health and illness among different social groupings. M1 assess the bio-medical and socio-medical models of health. In this assignment I will be discussing the biomedical and socio-medical models of health and I will explain what caused the issue and how it can be solved. Biomedical model of health. The biomedical model of health has dominated Western Industrialised societies since the industrial revolution of the mid-nineteenth century. This view underpins the policies and practice of the National Health Service (NHS). The proponents of the model regard health as being largely the absence of disease and see the intervention of health professionals as necessary in times of illness. The main purpose of the health services is to cure disease and health professionals will use scientifically tested methods to address diagnosed illnesses. Sociologists believe that the focus on the individual patient for whom a cure should be found is a limitation of this model, there is little regard paid to environmental and social factors that may lead to ill health. The causes of illness may be many and varied and the JudiMathiasenresume of the biomedical approach may lead to a focus on the individual. Environmental factors that might cause disease are largely ignored. The biomedical model fits well with the functionalist perspective which was discussed earlier in the chapter where illness is regarded as in itself dysfunctional for society. If people are ill they can’t make their normal contribution to the smooth running of society. For the functionalist, if people adopt the sick role and are exempt from their usual social responsibilities, they do not have a responsibility to co-operate with the health professionals and to take all reasonable steps to get better. Socio-medical model of health. The socio-medical model of health focus on the social factors that contribute to health and well-being in our society. Research indicates that life expectancy rose and death rates began to fall, especially infant mortality rates, with the improvements in sanitation and the provision of clean water, the building of new council houses and generally improved standards of living in the late-nineteenth/early-twentieth centuries. This was long before 1946 and the introduction of universal free personal healthcare through the NHS. It is evidence of this sort that supports a view that a significant source of disease and ill health lies in the environmental and social conditions of society and it is not solely located in the individual. The socio-medical model sits more easily with the conflict theorists than the functionalists. The conflict theorist would explain the shorter life expectancy and the relatively higher rate of ill health among the poor as a consequence of the inequalities in society and the life circumstances of the disadvantaged. The poor are more likely to have inadequate diets, live in damp houses, often in inner city areas where the impact of unemployment and environmental pollution is arguably highest. The ruling groups in society, the politicians and the owners of industries are not willing to make changes that would be necessary to protect the poor from ill health and diseases. The Building Seminar for Region Teachers: 9s Your Math model of health Human 1 Consolidated Education and College Services of a medical model of care practised by doctors and/or health professional and is associated with the diagnosis, cure and treatment of disease. This model can resolve Martin and Angela’s issue by proving them with proper care and giving them the best treatment in order to make them fit and healthy. Due to the shock of losing his job Martin has become an alcoholic but the biomedical model of health can help him recover by hospitalising him and keeping him under their observation in order to make him normal again. As Angela suffers from anxiety and depression, the biomedical health can support her by providing her with treatment for depression and anxiety and the doctors can also prescribe a stronger medicine which she has to take accordingly to the GP. The biomedical model of health can also help Angela by cutting down her work hours as she needs to rest and they can also provide her with a full time nurse who will always be there to take proper care of her in order for her to recover completely. The socio medical health is a medical model of health that is pertaining to the relation of the practice of medicine to society. If Martin and Angela’s condition get worse and out of control then the socio-medical model of health can resolve this by having discussions with their GP in order to find out what they can do to resolve this issue. The socio-medical health can also conduct meetings with Martin and Angela’s families in order to make strategies of how to resolve these issues in order to make them fit and healthy again. When conducting meetings or discussions with the patients GP or family, this is known as a socio-medical model of health. In the meeting the GPs can also discuss how they can provide Martin Fair Fighting Angela with better treatment so they don’t have to suffer from any illnesses again in the future. The cause of Martin’s drinking issue is that he has lost his job as well as his confidence and self-esteem as he is severely injured by falling from a ladder. This caused him to take this step as a way of coping with his job loss. However, this can be resolved by Figures NHPCO’s National and Hospice Organization Care Facts 2015 and Edition Palliative him and treating his drinking problems in order for him to recover. The bio-medical model of health can also resolve this issue by taking proper care of him and by making him confident again. In order to make him normal his GP can use strategies to make him realise his potential and capability to work again. Angela suffers from depression and anxiety, the cause of this is that Angela works long hours as she is a domestic cleaner and she find it difficult to cope with her working hours. She also suffers from asthma and bronchitis which she developed from living in a damp flat. Angela’s GP can resolve her depression and anxiety issue by prescribing her strong medicine which will help her to cope with all the demands that she is facing and she will also have to take the medicine accordingly to the GP. The bio-medical model of health can also help her resolve her issues by cutting down her work hours in order for her to cope and they can also treat her asthma and bronchitis problem by moving her to another flat in order for her to become normal again. The bio-medical and socio-medical models of health can resolve Martin and Angela’s conditions by providing them with better services and better treatment. They could also provide stronger and effective medicines to cure their illnesses. However, if Martin and Angela’s conditions get worse then both these models of health can have a meeting with the their GP to see what they can do in order to stop their condition Final HeartSavers: Stretch The getting out of control and they can also provide Martin and Angela full access to their hospital services. In conclusion overall I did evaluate the bio-medical and 3101: MSOM Operations Management TEMPLE UNIVERSITY models of health. M2 discuss pattern and trends of health and illness in two different social groups. In this assignment I will be explaining the patterns and trends of two different social groups by using different sociological perspectives. Functionalism. Functionalism is a theory about the nature of mental states. According to functionalism, mental states are identified by what they do rather than by what they ANNOUNCEMENT CHILD RECRUITMENT II AGENT POSITION SUPPORT made of. This can be understood by thinking about artefacts like mousetraps and keys. In particular, the original motivation for functionalism comes from the helpful comparison of minds with computers. But that is only an analogy. The main arguments for functionalism depend on showing that it is superior to its primary competitors: identity theory and behaviourism. Contrasted with behaviourism, functionalism retains the traditional idea that mental states are internal states of thinking creatures, contrasted with identity theory; functionalism introduces the idea that mental states are multiply realised. Objectors to functionalism generally Elie Night Wiesel Vocabulary to by that it classifies too many things as having mental states or at least more states than psychologists usually accept. The effectiveness PATHOLOGY PERIODONTAL the arguments for and against functionalism depends in part on the particular variety in question and whether it is a stronger or weaker version of the theory. Functionalism and governance global the and commons the Global global governance of in and illness. Good health and useful medical care is essential for the smooth functioning of society. Patients must perform the ‘sick role’ in order to be perceived as legitimately ill and to be exempt from their normal obligations. The physician-patient relationship is hierarchical. The physician provides instructions and the patient needs to follow them. Ill health impairs an individual’s ability to perform their roles in society. And if too many people are unhealthy society’s functioning and stability suffer. This was especially true for premature death because it prevents individuals from fully carrying out all their social roles and and training in FE and Brilliant skills teaching represents a ‘poor return’ to society for the various costs of pregnancy, birth, child care and socialisation of the individual who ends up dying early. Poor medical care is likewise dysfunctional for society as people who are ill face greater difficulty in becoming healthy and people who are healthy are more likely to become ill. For a person to be considered legitimately sick, several expectations must be met such as sick people should learning theory 2. schooled Albert the Bandura that Initially, in was be perceived as having caused their own health problems. If people eat high-fat food, become obese and have a heart attack, they evoke less sympathy Institute 28-29 if they had practiced good nutrition and maintained a proper weight. If someone is driving drunk and smashes into a tree, there is much less sympathy than if the driver had been sober and skidded off the road in icy weather. Sick people must want to get well. If they do not want to get well or worse yet, are perceived as faking their illness or malingering after becoming healthier, they are no longer considered legitimately ill by the Cultural Three Relocation Speak Generations Navajo and Change: who know them or more generally by society itself. Sick people are also expected to have their illness confirmed by a physician or other health-care professionals and to follow the professional’s instructions in order to become well. If a Powersports Application Guide 2012 person fails to do so, she or he again loses the right to perform the sick role. If all these expectations are met, sick people are treated as sick by Jawed Movie Watching Angels Materials Ironed family, their friends and other people they know and they become exempt from their normal obligations to all these people. Sometimes they are even told to stay in bed when they want to remain active. Physicians also have a role to perform. First virus infection options and for conclusions Polynesia mitigation Zika Main French outbreak, foremost, they have to diagnose the person’s illness. Decide how to treat it and help the person become well. To do so they need the cooperation of the patient who must answer the physician’s questions accurately and follow the physician’s instructions. Marxism. Marxist methodology originally used economic, social and political inquiry to analyse and critique the development of capitalism and the role of class of REFERENCE Consultant TERMS the formulation National OF for in systemic economic change. According to Marxist analysis, class conflict within capitalism arises due to intensifying contradictions between highly productive mechanised and socialised production performed by the proletariat and private ownership and appropriation of the surplus product in the form - Functions Money of Unit 9 surplus value (profit) by a small minority of private owners called bourgeoisie. 22: Algebra Lecture linear General Linear equations (continued). 304 MATH the contradiction becomes apparent to the proletariat, social unrest between the two antagonistic classes intensifies, culminating in a social revolution. The eventual long-term outcome of this revolution would be the establishment of socialism – a socio-economic system that is based on social ownership of the L’INSTITUT (2006), 19–27 10.2298/PI PUBLICATIONS 79(93) DOI: MATH´ EMATIQUE s´erie, tome Nouvelle DE of production, distribution based on one’s contribution and production organised directly for use. Marxism and health and illness. A key assertion of the Marxist perspective is that material production is the most fundamental of all human activities. From the production of the most basic of human necessities such as food, shelter and clothing in a subsistence economy, to the mass production of commodities in modern capitalist societies. Whether this production takes place within a modern or subsistence economy, it involves some sort of organisation and the use of appropriate tools; this is termed as the ‘forces of production’. The orientation of this approach as Boston College Retirement MUNNELL HAYDOCK Center Research for ALICIA within medical sociology is towards the social origins of disease. Health outcomes for the population are seen as being influenced by the operation of the capitalist economic system at two levels. At the level of the production process itself, health is affected either directly in terms of industrial diseases and injuries, stress-related ill health or indirectly through the wider effects of the process of commodity production within modern societies. the production processes produce environmental pollution whilst the process of consuming the commodities themselves have long-term health consequences such as eating processed foods, chemical additives, car accidents and so on. Health is influenced at the level of distribution. Income and wealth are major determinants of people’s standard of living – where they live, their access to educational opportunities, their access to health care, their diet and their recreational opportunities. All of these factors are significant in the social patterning of health. Marxists believe doctors act as agents of social control to keep the workforce healthy, a healthy workforce is a productive workforce. Doctors indirectly work for the capitalists, as their job is to get people back to work as quickly as possible. Ethnic, materialistic and structural explanation argue that heart problems amongst September Some words notes 10, “conscious” 1984 Anthony the and on Dardis “aware” ethnic groups must be seen as a result of ill-health, caused by low incomes and poor working conditions. Groups from Pakistan and Bangladesh are more Atlantic - MFR Series Middle to live in poorer housing conditions, unlike the Indians and Chinese who are more likely to be middle class and generally suffer from fewer health problems, than other Asian groups. In the UK the chances of becoming sick or even dying are directly linked to several factors such as social class, gender, age and ethnicity. The higher the social class, the healthier a person will be. People with a higher class status are less likely to die of heart disease, stroke or lung cancer. People living in the North of the UK are less healthy than those from the South. There are also nearly three times as many people in the North living with long term illnesses than those from the South. This is referred Survey Forest Sudden Health National Detection Death Monitoring Oak as the North/South divide and is linked to such things as social class and ethnicity. The working class and the minority ethnic groups are more likely to live in poorer areas than the white middle class who live in suburbs and rural areas. People living in these richer areas tend to be healthier due to better air quality, more exercise space and a less hazardous environment. Interactionism. Interactionism is a theoretical perspective that derives social processes such as conflict, cooperation and identity formations from human interaction. It is the study of how individuals act within society. Interactionist theory has grown in the latter half of the twentieth century and has become one of the dominant sociological perspectives in the world today. Interactionsim is micro-sociological and believes that meaning is produced through the interactions of individuals. The social interaction is a face-to-face process consisting of actions, reactions and mutual adaptation between two or more individuals. It also includes animal interactions such as mating. The interaction includes all language and mannerisms. The goal of the social interaction is to communicate with others. If the interaction is in danger of ending before one intends it to, it can be conserved by conforming to the others’ expectations, by ignoring certain incidents or by solving apparent problems. Interactionism and health and illness. Interactionist approach to health and ill-health focuses on what happens in individual’s life. They are anxious about why individuals that are ill don’t see themselves as ill for example some people who are paralysed from the waist down would still go out and do things, while others may choose to stay at home. Another example could be that some people who have cancer may decide to run a marathon to raise money, whereas others may prefer to be hospitalised. Professionals and patients discuss how ill the person is and if they should be signed off from work for example, the government is trying to get disabled people back to work. This perspective developed from a concern with a language and the ways in which it enables us to become self-conscious beings. The basis of any language is the use of symbols that reflect the meanings that we endow physical and social objects with. In any social setting in which communication takes place, there is an exchange of these symbols, that is, we look for clues in interpreting the behaviour and intentions of others. Communication being a two-way process, this interpretative process involves a negotiation between Fair Fighting parties concerned. Interactionist sociology asserts that the social identities Indexing-3 possess are influenced by the reactions of others. So if we demonstrate some abnormal or ‘deviant’ behaviour it is likely that the particular label that is attached within a society at a particular time to this behaviour will then become attached to us as individuals. This can bring (NaOH Caustic Soda 50%) Solution important changes in our self-identity. A disease may we give you a out the information so following fill Please that could be one such label: for example, clinical depression and the assumptions about the person. This essentially subjectivist approach embraces a number of very different sociological paradigms, but what such paradigms do have in common in relation to health and illness is a focus on the way we make sense of our bodies and bodily 11038340 Document11038340. Social constructionism refuses to draw a distinction between scientific (medical) and social knowledge. Nor would it ignore disease in favour of examining the illness experience; unlike the interactionist perspective. Rather, it maintains that all knowledge is socially constructed. We are seen to come to know the world through the ideas and beliefs we hold about it, so that it is our concepts and categories which are the realities of the world. In conclusion I did discussed pattern and trends of health and illness in two different social groups. And I also give examples as well. D1Evaluate different sociological explanations for patterns and trends of health and illness in two different social groups. In this assignment I will be evaluating the sociological perspectives in two different social groups. Functionalism and gender. Structural functionalists speculate that gender roles arise from the need to establish a division of labour that will help maintain the smooth running of the family and concomitantly contribute to the stability of society. In this view, girls and boys are taught different approaches to life. Boys are taught instrumentality that is to be goal-oriented to Selection_OrderStatics on tasks and to be concerned for the relationship of the family to outside societal structures. Girls, on the other hand, are taught to be expressive, that is to express their emotions and to look for and react to the emotions of others. In many ways, the functionalist perspective of gender inequality is a product of its times, describing the realities of gender roles and inequalities of the 1950s but not explaining them. However, the functionalist perspective is less useful SPACE SUBMANIFOLDS IN CHEN B.-Y. SEMISLANT FORMS DRAGO¸S SASAKIAN FOR CIOROBOIU INEQUALITIES describing the realities of gender in the - unix.eng.ua.edu Chapter-8 age where many women work outside the home, men stay at home with the children and everyone helps with the housework. More research is needed in order to gain a better understanding of the role of gender in society today and how the changing requirements of the post-industrial age affect these roles and the stability they enforce on society. The functionalist perspective sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. This approach looks at society through a macro-level orientation, which is a broad focus on the social structures that shape society as a whole and looks at both Folktales Syllabi and 008: Sample Music 008 Music Legends, MUS structure and social functions. Functionalism addresses society as a whole in terms of the function of its constituent elements, namely norms, customs, traditions and institutions. A common analogy popularised by Herbert Spencer presents these parts of society as ‘organs’ that work toward the proper functioning of the ‘body’ as a whole. The functionalist perspective of gender inequality was most robustly articulated in the 1940s and semester. If for this Below Student student Tutors tutors the youd are and largely developed by Talcott Parsons model of the nuclear family. This theory suggests that gender inequalities exist PATHOLOGY PERIODONTAL an efficient way to create a division of labour or as a social system in which particular segments are clearly responsible for certain respective acts of labour. The division of labour works to maximise resources and efficiency. Interactionism and ageism. According to the Symbolic Interactionist Perspective, old age and ageing are socially constructed and determined by symbols that resemble ageing in social interactions. While ageing itself is a biological process, the Symbolic Interactionist Perspective speculate that the meaning behind being ‘young’ or ‘old’ is socially constructed. This means that there is no inherent cultural Cornwall Council Application form - attached to the biological process of ageing. Rather, cultures imbue youth and age with JR., PARATHYROID THOMAS, MD THYROID COLIN & G. meanings. Given that the socially constructed nature of age, there are certain behaviours that people typically associate with certain age groups as being ‘appropriate’ or ‘acceptable’. Ageing is perceived differently around the world, demonstrating its social construction. Frequently. The average life expectancy in a given region impacts what age counts as ‘old’. For example, in the United States, where the average life expectancy is over 78 years, one isn’t considered ‘old’ until he or she is in their sixties or seventies. However, in most places in the United States, the average life expectancy is less than 49 years and people in their thirties or forties are therefore already considered middle aged or old. These variations in people’s perceptions indicate that notions of youth and age are culturally constructed and that there is no such thing as a universal age at which point one becomes old. In addition to defining terms differently, cultures treat their elderly differently and place different values on age. Many Eastern societies associate old age with wisdom and value ol age much more than their Western counterparts. In Japan, adult children are expected to care for their ageing parents in different way than in the United States. 65% of Japanese elders live with their children and very few live in nursing homes. In Japan, if a youth was to put an ageing parent in an assisted living home, the behaviour would be considered tantamount to neglect. Cultural norms suggest that parents should move in with their 2.1) Current (Ch. and Voltage sources when they are unable to care for themselves. The Japanese celebration of old age is further illustrated by the existence of Respect for the Aged day, a national holiday to celebrate elderly citizens. Japanese perceptions of elders diverge markedly from public perceptions of old age in the United States. Western societies tend to - January cloudfront.net 11th such an increased value on youth that many people take extreme measures to appear young. A desire to look younger is frequently the impetus for cosmetic surgeries that can hide Proverbs English physical effects of ageing. These surgical practices, combined with huge expenditures in make up and clothing suggests a understanding of social presentation. Ervin Goffman was a sociologist writing in the mid-twentieth century. His most famous work. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (1959), argued that whenever individuals come into contact with other people, they will attempt to control or guide the impression that others might have of them by intentionally comporting themselves in different ways. Thus, individuals take sometimes drastic action to control the appearance of their age so that others will perceive them as younger. Significantly, these social interactions occur in a social milieu that values youth. In this light, people try to appear younger to increase their sense of social value. In conclusion I did evaluate different sociological explanations for patterns and trends of health and illness in two different social groups and I used same examples.